Honestly I had very little interest in the IBM Z mainframe computers (zEC12 and up) ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_zEC12_(microprocessor)) but recently Mainframes caught my interest (Thanks to Soldier of FORTRAN @mainframed767 https://mainframed767.tumblr.com/)
First lets download the Ubuntu installation media for the S390X architecture from here https://wiki.ubuntu.com/S390X#Downloads
First thing that is interesting is the statement that Ubuntu S390X cannot be run nor has any support in simulators like Hercules, which we will prove as wrong in next steps.
After filling up some registration details you will get to the download link or just grab directly from here http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/releases/18.04/release/ubuntu-18.04.2-server-s390x.iso
Next we will need to download and compile Hercules from https://github.com/hercules-390/hyperion You will need all the standard Linux build tools (build-essential, cmake and a few -dev packages that the cmake will report that its missing) All this is available on the standard Linux Mint 18.3 apt repositories.
Lest create a working environment for this in our home dir ========================================================== $ mkdir -p ~/MAINFRAME/ $ cd ~/MAINFRAME $ git clone https://github.com/hercules-390/hyperion $ cd hyperion $ mkdir build $ cd build $ cmake .. If all dependencies were met the following will be visible ------------------------------------------------------------------- Install prefix /usr/local Executable directory bin Library directory lib Modules directory lib Data Directory (http) /usr/local/share/Hercules Source directory /home/user/MAINFRAME-STUFF/hyperion Build directory /home/user/MAINFRAME-STUFF/hyperion/build Generator: Unix Makefiles Build command line: /usr/bin/make C compiler version: GNU 5.4.0 C options (Release): -DHAVE_CONFIG_H -g3 -ggdb3 -DNDEBUG -O2 -march=native -minline-stringops-dynamically C options (Debug): -DHAVE_CONFIG_H -g3 -ggdb3 -g Install RPATH: $ORIGIN/../lib Large file support: Using native large file support. Hercules link libs: m;dl Target processor: x86_64 ------------------------------------------------------------------- $ make $ sudo su # make install
Prepare the Mainframe directory structure for Ubuntu Hercules simulation
$ mkdir -p ~/MAINFRAME/ubuntu/dasd $ cd ~/MAINFRAME/ubuntu/dasd $ dasdinit -lfs -linux ubuntu.disk 3390-3 LIN120 (this creates 2.8 GB disk )
If you need more you can add additional value at the end of this command
$ dasdinit -lfs -linux ubuntu.disk 3390-3 LIN120 8000 (this creates 6.8 GB disk )
Alternatively, if you want to save disk space at the expense of some run-time overhead,
you can use zlib or bz2 compressed DASDs by using the -z or -bz2 arguments, respectively. For example,
$ dasdinit -z -lfs -linux ubuntu.disk 3390-3 LIN120
Next we need to prepare the Ubuntu s390x hercules.cnf configuration file
$ cd ~/MAINFRAME/ubuntu $ vi hercules.cnf
I have observed that the Debian 9.4 hercules.cnf does not work with Ubuntu 18.04
CPUSERIAL 002623 CPUMODEL 2086 MAINSIZE 2048 XPNDSIZE 2048 NUMCPU 2 MAXCPU 2 OSTAILOR LINUX PANRATE SLOW ARCHMODE ESAME # Display Terminals 0700 3270 0701 3270 # dasd 0120 3390 ./dasd/ubuntu.disk # network 0A00,0A01 CTCI -n /dev/net/tun -t 1500 192.168.11.100 192.168.11.4
So if you even try to use the above Hercules will complain when loading the Ubuntu config
And enter the following configuration and save (This is important since the configuration sample used from Debian won’t work) Adjust the number of CPUs below to match your system since I have used 4 CPUs here NUMCPU 4
ARCHMODE z/Arch ALRF ENABLE CCKD RA=2,RAQ=4,RAT=2,WR=2,GCINT=5,GCPARM=0,NOSTRESS=0,TRACE=0,FREEPEND=-1 CNSLPORT 3270 CONKPALV (3,1,10) CPUMODEL 3090 CPUSERIAL 012345 DIAG8CMD ENABLE ECPSVM YES LOADPARM 0A95DB.. LPARNAME HERCULES MAINSIZE 1024 MOUNTED_TAPE_REINIT DISALLOW NUMCPU 4 OSTAILOR Z/OS PANRATE 80 PGMPRDOS LICENSED SHCMDOPT NODIAG8 SYSEPOCH 1900 TIMERINT 50 TZOFFSET +1400 YROFFSET 0 # Display Terminals 0700 3270 0701 3270 # dasd 0120 3390 ./dasd/ubuntu.disk # network 0A00,0A01 CTCI -n /dev/net/tun -t 1500 192.168.11.100 192.168.11.4
I am using my network configuration (yours will probably be different so it should be adjusted to your needs) A little explanation of the above #network definition
192.168.11.100 will be the tun virtual Ubuntu x390x inside Hercules 192.168.11.4 is an IP address I have assigned to my wireless interface wlp9s0
And create a networking script to start prior the Hercules simulation so that we can use the network inside our simulator. I have called this network.sh
$ vi ~/MAINFRAME/ubuntu/network.sh
And enter the following.
#Depending on your system replace the following # enp0s25 = eth0 # wlp9s0 = wlan0 #Setup tap and bridge tunctl -t tap0 -u user ifconfig tap0 up brctl addbr br0 brctl addif br0 enp0s25 brctl setfd br0 0 ifconfig enp0s25 10.0.2.1 up ifconfig br0 10.0.2.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 10.0.2.255 up brctl addif br0 tap0 ifconfig tap0 0.0.0.0 sysctl net.ipv4.ip_forward=1 iptables -A FORWARD --in-interface enp0s25 -j ACCEPT iptables --table nat -A POSTROUTING --out-interface wlp9s0 -j MASQUERADE
Execute the above network.sh script (you need root privs) before starting the Hercules simulator.
$ sudo su # ./network.sh
Mount the downloaded Ubuntu server iso
# mkdir -p /mnt/iso # mnt -o loop /path/to/iso/ubuntu-18.04.2-server-s390x.iso /mnt/iso
And execute the Hercules Ubuntu simulator in
$ cd ~/MAINFRAME/ubuntu $ sudo su # hercules -f hercules.cnf
You should see something similar to this >
HHC00346I gcparm=0,nostress=0,freepend=-1,fsync=0,linuxnull=0,trace=0 HHC02204I conkpalv set to (3,1,10) HHC02204I cpumodel set to 3090 HHC02204I cpuserial set to 012345 HHC02204I ecpsvm set to enabled, trap support enabled HHC02204I loadparm set to 0A95DB.. HHC02204I lparname set to HERCULES HHC17003I MAIN storage is 1G (mainsize); storage is not locked HHC02204I mounted_tape_reinit set to disabled HHC00109I Thread CPU Time is available; _POSIX_THREAD_CPUTIME=0 HHC00100I Thread id 00007f1d0fb69700, prio 15, name Processor CP01 started HHC00811I Processor CP01: architecture mode z/Arch HHC00109I Thread CPU Time is available; _POSIX_THREAD_CPUTIME=0 HHC00100I Thread id 00007f1d0fa68700, prio 15, name Processor CP02 started HHC00811I Processor CP02: architecture mode z/Arch HHC00109I Thread CPU Time is available; _POSIX_THREAD_CPUTIME=0 HHC00100I Thread id 00007f1d0f764700, prio 15, name Processor CP03 started HHC00811I Processor CP03: architecture mode z/Arch HHC02204I numcpu set to 4 HHC02204I panrate set to 80 HHC02204I shcmdopt set to Enabled NoDiag8 HHC02204I timerint set to 50 HHC02204I tzoffset set to +1400 HHC02204I yroffset set to 0 HHC00100I Thread id 00007f1d0f452700, prio 4, name Console connection started HHC00414I 0:0120 CKD file ./dasd/ubuntu.disk: cyls 3339 heads 15 tracks 50085 trklen 56832 HHC01024I Waiting for console connections on port 3270 HHC00901I 0:0A00 CTCI: Interface tun0 type TUN opened HHC00100I Thread id 00007f1d12623740, prio 0, name Control panel started herc =====>
The herc =====> is important … this is our Mainframe prompt which we will now use inside Hercules to configure the Ubuntu Server.
Type the following to load the installer from our mounted iso.
herc =====> ipl /mnt/iso/ubuntu.ins
After approx 90 seconds the installation will load and we get to the first step of the S390X configuration – Network
What is very important here is to understand how to enter command line options to the herc prompt. Always use a “dot” . before any command in herc prompt. We want to use ctc (Channel to Channel connection here)
Now comes the important part, defining the password for the installation session (yes you will login to the simulated S390X Ubuntu via ssh from your laptop and continue the setup from there) herc =====> .password and confirm hit ENTER , choose your own password.
Now ssh from your Linux machine to the simulated S390X Ubuntu and use the credentials you have defined before
$ ssh email@example.com
And the familiar pink/purple Ubuntu Server NCURSES installer will pop-up. From now on its pretty much straight forward Ubuntu installation procedure. I am not going to cover the exact steps ( you can get all the juicy details from https://wiki.ubuntu.com/S390X/Installation%20In%20LPAR for example)
Don’t install any X stuff, just keep it basic (OpenSSH server and Basic Ubuntu Server) and be patient, the installation can take some time ( 2 to 3 hours on Core i5 8 GB RAM Panasonic Toughbook CF-53)
And finally we get to the end
In the Hercules console hit ESCAPE and and hit “l” and “c” to boot the new system, to get back to the console display hit ESCAPE again
Typical display in Hercules simulator
Congratulations again ! You are running a Mainframe Ubuntu 18.04 Linux S390X via Hercules simulator !
I would like to thank the following sources of information that helped me through the above http://www.josefsipek.net/docs/s390-linux/hercules-s390.html
Also Moshix has a shot on the above :)